Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis among adults in Western nations; its prevalence exceeds that of rheumatoid arthritis. A leading risk factor for development of gout is lifestyle, especially excessive intake of purines, alcohol, and fructose. Use of certain medications (eg, diuretics) can increase risk, as can the presence of comorbid conditions including diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease.
The underlying pathophysiology of gout is well understood. Gout is a disease of crystal deposition caused by persistent elevation of serum uric acid (SUA) levels above the saturation point for monosodium urate (MSU) crystal formation. Following a period of asymptomatic hyperuricemia, sodium urate crystals gradually accumulate in and around peripheral joints, tendons, and bursae. This accumulation is initially "silent" – that is, it does not cause symptoms – but over time, as urate crystals are shed from articular cartilage into the joint spaces, patients typically experience acute attacks, or flares, of painful synovitis. Left unchecked, this buildup of MSU crystals induces inflammation and eventually causes accumulations of densely packed crystals (tophi) on articular cartilage and bone, resulting in irreversible joint damage, pain, and other chronic symptoms. Clinicians need to be aware that appropriate use of therapies designed to lower SUA levels to a target of ≤6 mg/dL not only prevents flares but can in many cases can result in a cure.
Joint Accreditation Statement
In support of improving patient care, this activity has been planned and implemented by the Postgraduate Institute for Medicine and Global Academy for Medical Education. Postgraduate Institute for Medicine is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.
Physician Continuing Medical Education
The Postgraduate Institute for Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit
(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Continuing Nursing Education
The maximum number of hours awarded for this Continuing Nursing Education activity is 1.0 contact hours.
Designated for 1.0 contact hours of pharmacotherapy credit for Advance Practice Registered Nurses. Term of Offering
This activity was released on January 4, 2018 and is valid for one year. Requests for credit must be made no later than January 4, 2019. Instructions for Obtaining Credit
In order to receive credit, participants must complete the online evaluation and post-test at the end of this program. Participants must also score at least a 70% on the post-test. Statements of credit will be issued upon completion of the evaluation and post-test. Fee Information & Refund/Cancellation Policy
There is no fee for this educational activity. Statement of Support
This activity is supported by an independent educational grant from Ironwood Pharmaceuticals.
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) requires instructors, planners, managers and other individuals and their spouse/life partner who are in a position to control the content of this activity to disclose any real or apparent conflict of interest they may have as related to the content of this activity. All identified conflicts of interest are thoroughly vetted and resolved according to PIM policy. PIM is committed to providing its learners with high-quality CME/CE activities and related materials that promote improvements or quality in healthcare and not a specific proprietary business interest of a commercial interest.
reported the following financial relationships or relationships to products or devices they or their spouse/life partner have with commercial interests related to the content of this CME activity:
|Name of Faculty or Presenter ||Reported Financial Relationship |
|Brian Mandell, MD, PhD ||Grant/Research Support and Consultant: Horizon |
The planners and managers
reported the following financial relationships or relationships to products or devices they or their spouse/life partner have with commercial interests related to the content of this CME/CE activity:
|Name of Planner or Manager ||Reported Financial Relationship |
|Mike LoPresti ||Nothing to disclose |
|Margaret McLaughlin, PhD ||Nothing to disclose |
|Ron Schaumburg ||Nothing to disclose |
The following PIM planners and managers, Trace Hutchison, PharmD, Samantha Mattiucci, PharmD, CHCP, Judi Smelker-Mitchek, RN, BSN and Jan Schultz, RN, MSN, CHCP, hereby state that they or their spouse/life partner do not have any financial relationships or relationships to products or devices with any commercial interest related to the content of this activity of any amount during the past 12 months.
Disclosure of Unlabeled Use
This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the US Food and Drug Administration. The planners of this activity do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications.
The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of any organization associated with this activity. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings. Disclaimer
Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of patient conditions and possible contraindications on dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer's product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.
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